Create a new directory C: Gradle with File Explorer. Open a second File Explorer window and go to the directory where the Gradle distribution was downloaded. Double-click the ZIP archive to expose the content. Drag the content folder gradle-6.8.1 to your newly created C: Gradle folder. Microsoft Windows users. Create a new directory C:Gradle with File Explorer. Open a second File Explorer window and go to the directory where the Gradle distribution was downloaded. Double-click the ZIP archive to expose the content. Drag the content folder gradle-7.2 to your newly created C:Gradle folder. Alternatively you can unpack the Gradle distribution ZIP into C:Gradle using an. I'm coding a project in Java and building it with gradle. I need to keep it simple and compile it into standalone binaries for Windows, Mac and Linux. Is there anything which can build all of this.
- Prerequisites for Oracle GraalVM CE/EE
- Testing the native executable
- Creating a container
Compiling the application to a native executable
Packaging the native executable in a container
Debugging native executable
This guide takes as input the application developed in the Getting Started Guide.
Building a native executable requires using a distribution of GraalVM.There are three distributions:Oracle GraalVM Community Edition (CE), Oracle GraalVM Enterprise Edition (EE) and Mandrel.The differences between the Oracle and Mandrel distributions are as follows:
Mandrel is a downstream distribution of the Oracle GraalVM CE.Mandrel’s main goal is to provide a way to build native executables specifically designed to support Quarkus.
Mandrel releases are built from a code base derived from the upstream Oracle GraalVM CE code base,with only minor changes but some significant exclusions that are not necessary for Quarkus native apps.They support the same capabilities to build native executables as Oracle GraalVM CE,with no significant changes to functionality.Notably, they do not include support for polyglot programming.The reason for these exclusions is to provide a better level of support for the majority of Quarkus users.These exclusions also mean Mandrel offers a considerable reduction in its distribution sizewhen compared with Oracle GraalVM CE/EE.
Mandrel is built slightly differently to Oracle GraalVM CE, using the standard OpenJDK project.This means that it does not profit from a few small enhancements that Oracle have added to the version of OpenJDK used to build their own GraalVM downloads.This enhancements are omitted because upstream OpenJDK does not manage them, and cannot vouch for.This is particularly important when it comes to conformance and security.
Mandrel is currently only recommended for building native executables that target Linux containerized environments.This means that Mandrel users should use containers to build their native executables.If you are building native executables for macOS or Windows target platforms,you should consider using Oracle GraalVM instead,because Mandrel does not currently target these platforms.Building native executables directly on bare metal Linux is possible,with details available in the Mandrel READMEand Mandrel releases.
The prerequisites vary slightly depending on whether you are using Oracle GraalVM CE/EE or Mandrel.
While Oracle GraalVM is available for both Java 8 and Java 11 (Mandrel only supports Java 11), Quarkus only works with the Java 11 version.If you use the Oracle distribution, make sure to install the Java 11 version.
Prerequisites for Mandrel
less than 15 minutes
JDK 11 installed with
A working container runtime (Docker, podman)
The code of the application developed in the Getting Started Guide.
Skip to this section to continue with the guide for Mandrel,and follow the Mandrel-specific instructions in that section.
Prerequisites for Oracle GraalVM CE/EE
less than 15 minutes
JDK 11 installed with
A working C development environment
GraalVM version 21.2.0 (be sure to install the Java 11 support) installed and configured appropriately
A working container runtime (Docker, podman)
The code of the application developed in the Getting Started Guide.
What does having a working C developer environment mean?
If you cannot install GraalVM, you can use a multi-stage Docker build to run Maven inside a Docker container that embeds GraalVM. There is an explanation of how to do this at the end of this guide.
Version 21.2.0 is required. Using the community edition is enough.
Install GraalVM (pick the java 11 version) if you haven’t already. You have a few options for this:
Use platform-specific install tools like homebrew, sdkman, or scoop.
Download the appropriate Community Edition archive from https://github.com/graalvm/graalvm-ce-builds/releases, and unpack it like you would any other JDK.Make sure to download and install at Java 11 version.
Configure the runtime environment. Set
GRAALVM_HOMEenvironment variable to the GraalVM installation directory, for example:
On macOS, point the variable to the
On Windows, you will have to go through the Control Panel to set your environment variables.
Some previous releases of GraalVM included the
native-imagetool by default. This is no longer the case; it must be installed as a second step after GraalVM itself is installed. Note: there is an outstanding issue using GraalVM with macOS Catalina.
(Optional) Set the
JAVA_HOMEenvironment variable to the GraalVM installation directory.
(Optional) Add the GraalVM
bindirectory to the path
GraalVM binaries are not (yet) notarized for macOS Catalina as reported in this GraalVM issue. This means that you may see the following error when using
Use the following command to recursively delete the
We recommend that you follow the instructions in the next sections and package the application step by step. However, you can go right to the completed example.
Clone the Git repository:
git clone https://github.com/quarkusio/quarkus-quickstarts.git, or download an archive.
The solution is located in the
Producing a native executable
The native executable for our application will contain the application code, required libraries, Java APIs, and a reduced version of a VM. The smaller VM base improves the startup time of the application and produces a minimal disk footprint.
If you have generated the application from the previous tutorial, you can find in the
pom.xml the following profile:
You can provide custom options for the
Another possibility is to include the
You can find more information about how to configure the native image building process in the Configuring the Native Executable section below.
We use a profile because, you will see very soon, packaging the native executable takes a few minutes. You couldjust pass -Dquarkus.package.type=native as a property on the command line, however it is better to use a profile asthis allows native image tests to also be run.
Create a native executable using:
./mvnw package -Pnative.
The Microsoft Native Tools for Visual Studio must first be initialized before packaging. You can do this by startingthe
Another solution is to write a script to do this for you:
In addition to the regular files, the build also produces
target/getting-started-1.0.0-SNAPSHOT-runner.You can run it using:
Testing the native executable
Producing a native executable can lead to a few issues, and so it’s also a good idea to run some tests against the application running in the native file.
This instructs the failsafe-maven-plugin to run integration-test and indicates the location of the produced native executable.
Then, open the
src/test/java/org/acme/quickstart/NativeGreetingResourceIT.java. It contains:
|1||Use another test runner that starts the application from the native file before the tests.The executable is retrieved using the |
|2||We extend our previous tests, but you can also implement your tests|
To see the
NativeGreetingResourceIT run against the native executable, use
./mvnw verify -Pnative:
By default, Quarkus waits for 60 seconds for the native image to start before automatically failing the native tests. Thisduration can be changed using the
In the future,
By default, native tests runs using the
prod profile.This can be overridden using the
quarkus.test.native-image-profile property.For example, in your
application.properties file, add:
quarkus.test.native-image-profile=test.Alternatively, you can run your tests with:
./mvnw verify -Pnative -Dquarkus.test.native-image-profile=test.However, don’t forget that when the native executable is built the
prod profile is enabled.So, the profile you enable this way must be compatible with the produced executable.
Excluding tests when running as a native executable
When running tests this way, the only things that actually run natively are you application endpoints, whichyou can only test via HTTP calls. Your test code does not actually run natively, so if you are testing codethat does not call your HTTP endpoints, it’s probably not a good idea to run them as part of native tests.
If you share your test class between JVM and native executions like we advise above, you can mark certain testswith the
@DisabledOnNativeImage annotation in order to only run them on the JVM.
Testing an existing native executable
It is also possible to re-run the tests against a native executable that has already been built. To do this run
./mvnw test-compile failsafe:integration-test. This will discover the existing native image and run the tests against it usingfailsafe.
If the process cannot find the native image for some reason, or you want to test a native image that is no longer in thetarget directory you can specify the executable with the
-Dnative.image.path= system property.
Creating a Linux executable without GraalVM installed
|Before going further, be sure to have a working container runtime (Docker, podman) environment. If you use Dockeron Windows you should share your project’s drive at Docker Desktop file share settings and restart Docker Desktop.|
Quite often one only needs to create a native Linux executable for their Quarkus application (for example in order to run in a containerized environment) and would like to avoidthe trouble of installing the proper GraalVM version in order to accomplish this task (for example, in CI environments it’s common practiceto install as little software as possible).
To this end, Quarkus provides a very convenient way of creating a native Linux executable by leveraging a container runtime such as Docker or podman.The easiest way of accomplishing this task is to execute:
By default Quarkus automatically detects the container runtime.If you want to explicitely select the container runtime, you can do it with:
These are normal Quarkus config properties, so if you always want to build in a containerit is recommended you add these to your
If you see the following invalid path error for your application JAR when trying to create a native executable using a container build, even though your JAR was built successfully, you’re most likely using a remote daemon for your container runtime.
In this case, use the parameter
The reason for this is that the local build driver invoked through
Building with Mandrel requires a custom builder image parameter to be passed additionally:
Please note that the above command points to a floating tag.It is highly recommended to use the floating tag,so that your builder image remains up-to-date and secure.If you absolutely must, you may hard-code to a specific tag(see here for available tags),but be aware that you won’t get security updates that way and it’s unsupported.
Creating a container
Using the container-image extensions
By far the easiest way to create a container-image from your Quarkus application is to leverage one of the container-image extensions.
If one of those extensions is present, then creating a container image for the native executable is essentially a matter of executing a single command:
quarkus.native.container-build=trueallows for creating a Linux executable without GraalVM being installed (and is only necessary if you don’t have GraalVM installed locally or your local operating system is not Linux)
quarkus.container-image.build=trueinstructs Quarkus to create a container-image using the final application artifact (which is the native executable in this case)
You can run the application in a container using the JAR produced by the Quarkus Maven Plugin.However, in this section we focus on creating a container image using the produced native executable.
When using a local GraalVM installation, the native executable targets your local operating system (Linux, macOS, Windows etc).However, as a container may not use the same executable format as the one produced by your operating system,we will instruct the Maven build to produce an executable by leveraging a container runtime (as described in this section):
The produced executable will be a 64 bit Linux executable, so depending on your operating system it may no longer be runnable.However, it’s not an issue as we are going to copy it to a container.The project generation has provided a
Dockerfile.native in the
src/main/docker directory with the following content:
Then, if you didn’t delete the generated native executable, you can build the docker image with:
And finally, run it with:
Using a multi-stage Docker build
The previous section showed you how to build a native executable using Maven or Gradle, but it requires you to have created the native executable first.In addition, this native executable must be a Linux 64 bits executable.
You may want to build the native executable directly in a container without having a final container containing the build tools.That approach is possible with a multi-stage Docker build:
The first stage builds the native executable using Maven or Gradle
The second stage is a minimal image copying the produced native executable
Such a multi-stage build can be achieved as follows:
|This multi-stage Docker build copies the Maven wrapper from the host machine.The Maven wrapper (or the Gradle wrapper) is a convenient way to provide a specific version of Maven/Gradle.It avoids having to create a base image with Maven and Gradle.To provision the Maven Wrapper in your project, use: |
Save this file in
src/main/docker/Dockerfile.multistage as it is not included in the getting started quickstart.
If you are using Gradle in your project, you can use this sample Dockerfile. Save it in
Before launching our Docker build, we need to update the default
And, finally, run it with:
If you need SSL support in your native executable, you can easily include the necessary libraries in your Docker image.
Please see our Using SSL With Native Executables guide for more information.
|To use Mandrel instead of GraalVM CE, update the |
Using a distroless base image
If you are looking for small container images, the distroless approach reduces the size of the base layer.The idea behind distroless is the usage of a single and minimal base image containing all the requirements, and sometimes even the application itself.
Quarkus provides a distroless base image that you can use in your
Dockerfile.You only need to copy your application, and you are done:
|Projects generated with https://code.quarkus.io already have this Dockerfile in the |
Quarkus provides the
quay.io/quarkus/quarkus-distroless-image:1.0 image.It contains the required packages to run a native executable and is only 9Mb.Just add your application on top of this image, and you will get a tiny container image.
Separating Java and native image compilation
Gradle Generate Native Executable For Mac Shortcut
In certain circumstances, you may want to build the native image in a separate step.For example, in a CI/CD pipeline, you may want to have one step to generate the source that will be used for the native image generation and another step to use these sources to actually build the native executable.For this use case, you can set the
quarkus.package.type=native-sources.This will execute the java compilation as if you would have started native compilation (
-Pnative), but stops before triggering the actual call to GraalVM’s
After compilation has finished, you find the build artifact in
From the output above one can see that, in addition to the produced jar file and the associated lib directory, a text file named
native-image.args was created.This file holds all parameters (including the name of the JAR to compile) to pass along to GraalVM’s
native-image command.If you have GraalVM installed, you can start the native compilation by executing:
The process for Gradle is analogous.
Running the build process in a container is also possible:
|1||Mount the host’s directory |
|2||Switch the working directory to |
|3||Use the |
If you are running on a Windows machine, please keep in mind that the binary was created within a Linux docker container.Hence, the binary will not be executable on the host Windows machine.
A high level overview of what the various steps of a CI/CD pipeline would look is the following:
Register the output of the step executing
./mvnw …command (i.e. directory
target/native-image) as a build artifact,
Require this artifact in the step executing the
native-image …command, and
Register the output of the step executing the
native-image …command (i.e. files matching
target/*runner) as build artifact.
The environment executing step
1 only needs Java and Maven (or Gradle) installed, while the environment executing step
3 only needs a GraalVM installation (including the
Depending on what the final desired output of the CI/CD pipeline is, the generated binary might then be used to create a container image.
Debugging native executable
Starting with Oracle GraalVM 20.2 or Mandrel 20.1,debug symbols for native executables can be generated for Linux environments(Windows support is still under development, macOS is not supported).These symbols can be used to debug native executables with tools such as
To generate debug symbols,add
-Dquarkus.native.debug.enabled=true flag when generating the native executable.You will find the debug symbols for the native executable in a
.debug file next to the native executable.
The generation of the
Aside from debug symbols,setting
-Dquarkus.native.debug.enabled=true flag generates a cache of source filesfor any JDK runtime classes, GraalVM classes and application classes resolved during native executable generation.This source cache is useful for native debugging tools,to establish the link between the symbols and matching source code.It provides a convenient way of making just the necessary sources available to the debugger/IDE when debugging a native executable.
Sources for third party jar dependencies, including Quarkus source code,are not added to the source cache by default.To include those, make sure you invoke
mvn dependency:sources first.This step is required in order to pull the sources for these dependencies,and get them included in the source cache.
The source cache is located in the
Configuring the Native Executable
There are a lot of different configuration options that can affect how the native executable is generated.These are provided in
application.properties the same as any other config property.
Configuration property fixed at build time - All other configuration properties are overridable at runtime
Comma-separated, additional arguments to pass to the build process. If an argument includes the
list of string
If the HTTP url handler should be enabled, allowing you to do URL.openConnection() for HTTP URLs
If the HTTPS url handler should be enabled, allowing you to do URL.openConnection() for HTTPS URLs
If all security services should be added to the native image
Defines the user language used for building the native executable. Defaults to the system one.
Defines the user country used for building the native executable. Defaults to the system one.
Defines the file encoding as in -Dfile.encoding=… Native image runtime uses the host’s (i.e. build time) value of file.encoding system property. We intentionally default this to UTF-8 to avoid platform specific defaults to be picked up which can then result in inconsistent behavior in the generated native executable.
If all character sets should be added to the native image. This increases image size
The maximum Java heap to be used during the native image generation
If the native image build should wait for a debugger to be attached before running. This is an advanced option and is generally only intended for those familiar with GraalVM internals
If the debug port should be published when building with docker and debug-build-process is true
If a JVM based 'fallback image' should be created if native image fails. This is not recommended, as this is functionally the same as just running the application in a JVM
If all META-INF/services entries should be automatically registered
If the bytecode of all proxies should be dumped for inspection
If this build should be done using a container runtime. Unless container-runtime is also set, docker will be used by default. If docker is not available or is an alias to podman, podman will be used instead as the default.
If this build is done using a remote docker daemon.
The container runtime (e.g. docker) that is used to do an image based build. If this is set then a container build is always done.
list of string
If the resulting image should allow VM introspection
If full stack traces are enabled in the resulting image
If the reports on call paths and included packages/classes/methods should be generated
If exceptions should be reported with a full stack trace
If errors should be reported at runtime. This is a more relaxed setting, however it is not recommended as it means your application may fail at runtime if an unsupported feature is used by accident.
Don’t build a native image if it already exists. This is useful if you have already built an image and you want to use Quarkus to deploy it somewhere. Note that this is not able to detect if the existing image is outdated, if you have modified source or config and want a new image you must not use this flag.
A comma separated list of globs to match resource paths that should be added to the native image. Use slash (
list of string
A comma separated list of globs to match resource paths that should not be added to the native image. Use slash (
list of string
If debug is enabled and debug symbols are generated. The symbols will be generated in a separate .debug file.
This guide covered the creation of a native (binary) executable for your application.It provides an application exhibiting a swift startup time and consuming less memory.However, there is much more.
We recommend continuing the journey with the deployment to Kubernetes and OpenShift.
MSBuild, NAnt, Visual Studio, ReSharper-based.NET code analysis Ant, Maven 2-3, Gradle, IntelliJ IDEA -based build and code analysis command-line, PowerShell, 18 Xcode, 19 Rake, FxCop. How-To – Use Gradle inside Visual Studio Code to build your Kotlin/Native applications (on a Mac) von Martin Majewski. In macOS Programming. In my last How-To – Build and run a Kotlin/Native application with Visual Studio Code on macOS I showed you how to setup, build, and run your first Kotlin/Native application using the barebone Kotlin/Native compiler inside Visual Studio Code. First of all - Android Studio and Visual Studio are IDE's. Tools to create code. What you are asking is programming framework. I assume that when you are talking about Android Studio you mean Native Android Development and by Visual Studio you mean Xamarin. If you want to create crossplatform app then Native Android Development is NOT a way to go.
Although we can use IDE for creating new java projects, if we use a build tool like
gradle and create the project from ground up then not only we have more control, we can also change between IDEs as we feel the need.
Create new application
Java project using
Please note: The Build Init plugin is currently incubating. Please be aware that the DSL and other configuration may change in later Gradle versions. To know more about gradle supported java projects read Gradle Build Init plugin documentation.
This command create a
gradle.build file with the contents
To check all tasks of the project run -
You will see list of tasks available for the project and short description about what the task is about. If you want to run any of the task then just run
<task name> is the task from the previous command. For example If you run -
distribution(compressed executable) file will be found in
buld>distributions folder. There is
zip archive. You can extract and use either of them.
You can create new custom tasks or add plugin that have prebuilt task that you can use.
Code Coverage metric
Code coverage is one of the most important metric for any project. From Wikipedia -
In computer science, test coverage is a measure used to describe the degree to which the source code of a program is executed when a particular test suite runs. A program with high test coverage, measured as a percentage, has had more of its source code executed during testing which suggests it has a lower chance of containing undetected software bugs compared to a program with low test coverage.
We are going to use
JaCoCo1 for test coverage. At first we need to add
Now if we run -
we will see that there is two new task available under
now we can
create code coverage report by running -
Java Gradle Visual Studio Code
but I want to create code coverage report when I run
gradle test command which run all
tests for the project. To do so edit your
gradle.build file -
gradle build or
gradle test to generate the Code Coverage Report. The Code Coverage Report can be found in build>reports>jacoco>test>html. Open the
index.html file here to view the Coverage Report
Please Note: We can use
JaCoCo to generate
Code Coverage Report for Continuous Code Quality tools like SonarQube2. I will discuss about it in future articles.
Gradle Visual Studio Code
Gradle Generate Native Executable For Mac Operating System
JaCoCo is a free code coverage library for Java, which has been created by the EclEmma team based on the lessons learned from using and integration existing libraries for many years. ↩
SonarQubeis an open source platform for continuous inspection of code quality to perform automatic reviews with static analysis of code to detect bugs, code smells and security vulnerabilities on 20+ Programming languages. SonarQube offers reports on duplicated code, coding standards, unit tests, code coverage, code complexity, comments, bugs, and security vulnerabilities. SonarQube can record metrics history and provides evolution graphs. SonarQube’s greatest asset is that it provides fully automated analysis and integration with Maven, Ant, Gradle, MSBuild and continuous integration tools. SonarQube also integrates with Eclipse, Visual Studio and IntelliJ IDEA development environments through the SonarLint plugins and integrates with external tools like LDAP, Active Directory, GitHub, etc. ↩